GLOSSARY OF TERMS


Moon Sun Finance


Apogee
is the point in the Moon's orbit greatest distance to the Earth.
Annual One Day rise or fall for a particular index is the biggest one day % rise or fall in the year commencing March 1.
Ascendant
is the point of ecliptic longitude on the eastern horizon at a specific place & time.
Bubble.
A delusive commercial or financial scheme, in which rampant speculation and subsequent collapse is experienced.

Business Cycle.
Fluctuations in business, economic and financial activity, most evident in free market, industrial societies. The recurring cycle consists of expansion in activity followed by contraction and recession. The severity (amplitude) and duration of a business cycle varies considerably from fluctuation to fluctuation. 
Calippic Cycle (spelt by some sources as Callipic) is the Metonic Cycle multiplied by 4 and is based on 940 Synodic months.
Celestial Equator is the plane of the Earth’s equator extended out onto the sky.

Conjunction.
This occurs with the alignment at 0 angular degrees on the ecliptic plane of two or more planets/points as viewed from Earth. For this to happen, they must have the same ecliptic longitude.
Crash.
Collapse of asset prices or failure of an important bank or firm.
Crisis. This is a decisive turning point for the worse in an economic cycle in which widespread economic and financial distress is experienced.
Culmination
occurs when a heavenly body reaches its maximum altitude above the horizon.
Cycle.
A series that repeats itself in an approximately constant period.
Depression.
A protracted period in which economic activity is at the lowest phase of a business cycle. It is typified by reduced industrial production, high unemployment, business failures and low consumer demand.
Diurnal Cycle.
The apparent rising/culmination/setting of a heavenly body eg: solar day, lunar day, etc, as observed from a particular site on the Earth's surface. This arises due to the Earth's daily spin on its axis.
Eclipse.
A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth obscuring at least part of the Sun when viewed from Earth. A lunar eclipse is less common and happens when the Earth passes between the Sun and Moon. This causes the Earth's shadow to darken the Moon. For eclipses to manifest, the Sun and Moon alignment must be in close proximity to the Moon's nodes (ie: in a straight line).
Ecliptic.
The plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun, which is inclined at 23.5 degrees to the plane of the Earth's equator.
Equinoxes
are node points where the plane of the Earth’s equator cuts the ecliptic. At these points, the equatorial ascending node is where the Sun passes from below to above the celestial equator at 0 Eo (0 Aries - vernal or spring equinox at around 20 March) as viewed from the northern hemisphere. The equatorial descending node is where the Sun passes from above to below the celestial equator at 180 Eo (0 Libra - autumnal equinox at around 22 September).
Full Moon.
Occurs when the Earth is positioned between the Sun and Moon (ie: the Sun - Moon angle is 180 degrees when viewed from Earth).
Gold Bullion Standard.
Gold coins do not circulate freely within a country and could not be exchanged for other coin. Notes could be redeemable for gold bullion at a set price.
Gold Standard.
This sets a fixed price for gold with gold coin forming either part or all of the circulation within a country. Notes are represented and redeemable in gold. An international gold standard applies when gold, or a currency convertible into gold at a fixed price, is used for international payments. Exchange rates are fixed and gold may be exported or imported freely between countries.
Horizonal Plane (or Horizontal Plane). At a given location on the Earth’s surface, this plane separates the earth from the sky.
Inex separates two consecutive Saros series and is equal to 358 synodic months (28.95 tropical years). In the Inex period, the Sun repeats the same angle to the Moon with the north node 180 Eo on the opposite side of the ecliptic.
Lunar day
is the period from moonrise to moonrise and equals 24.8412 hours.
Mania.
A speculative craze.
Meridian, Central is the plane connecting the north – south axis points with the zenith point.
Metonic Cycle. Every 19.0 tropical years (or 235 synodic months) from the precise date of a full/new Moon, another full/new Moon occurs at approximately the same degree of the ecliptic and about the same date. The ancient Greeks called 19 the golden number as the same lunar phase repeats on the same date every 19.0 years. 
Mid Heaven. The highest point above the horizon attained by a heavenly body.
Month, A
pogee (or anomalistic month) is the time taken for the Moon to complete one cycle from perigee to perigee and equals 27.5546 days.

Month, Nodical
(or Draconic Month). The time taken for the Moon to complete one cycle north node to north node and is equal to 27.2122 days.
Month, Sidereal.
The time taken for the Moon to travel from a fixed star back to the same fixed star. It is almost exactly equivalent to the tropical month and equals 27.3217 days.
Month, Synodic (or Lunar Month). The time taken for the Moon to complete one cycle new Moon to new Moon and is equal to 29.5306 days.
Month, Tropical.
The time taken for the Moon to complete one 360 degree cycle of the ecliptical  circle and equals 27.3216 days.
Moon's Orbital Plane.
Plane of the Moon's orbit around the Earth, which is inclined by 5 degrees to the ecliptic plane.
New Moon
. Occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth (ie: the Sun - Moon angle is 0 degrees when viewed from Earth).
Nutation Cycle.
The time taken for the Moon's north node to complete one 360 degree cycle retrograde (ie: clockwise) through the ecliptic circle and equals 18.6133 tropical years.
Node.
In astronomy, these are two points (eg: equinoxes, lunar nodes, etc) where the orbit of a heavenly body cuts an astronomical plane or where two astronomical planes intersect.
Node, Moon’s
. The plane of the Moon's orbit is inclined at 5 degrees to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun (the ecliptic). The lunar nodes are the points where these two planes intersect. The north or ascending node is where the Moon passes from below to above the ecliptic (South to North). The south or descending  node is where the Moon passes from above to below the ecliptic (North to South).
Nodical Cycles
of the Sun and Moon. This covers two lunisolar cycles - the nodical year (Sun angle to the north node ) and the nodical month (Moon angle to the north node).
Panic.
Sudden fright in financial markets with a mad irrational rush out of speculation into hard assets and liquidity.
Parallel Plane (or Parallel of Latitude) is the plane of at given latitude north or south that cuts through the Earth and is parallel with the equator.

Perigee.
The point in the Moon's orbit closest distance to the Earth. It takes 8.85 years to complete one cycle of the ecliptic circle in direct motion (anticlockwise).
Prime Vertical is the plane connecting the East – West axis and the zenith and nadir points. It is at right angles (90 Ao) to the horizonal plane.  

Recession.
A mild or severe decline in economic activity, followed by recovery. Standard definition: A decline in Gross National Product for at least two successive quarters.
Resonance
(or Locked Harmonics) occurs in astronomy when there is a simple numerical ratio between two periods that leads to repeated configurations. 
Rising Point.
The time a heavenly body rises on the eastern horizon.
Saros Cycle.
This is the interval between two similar eclipses (every 223 lunar months or 6,585.32 days) when the relative angles between the Sun, Moon and Moon’s nodes repeat to within a degree.
Saros Cycle, Triple
(or Exeligmos) Because of the extra one-third day in the Saros (6,585.32 days), an eclipse happens every 18.03 years approximately 120 degrees longitude further West on the surface of the Earth. After three Saros cycles of 54.09 years from the precise date of an eclipse, another occurs at about the same longitude.
Sidereal.
Planetary or lunisolar motions relative to the 360 degree circle of fixed stars along the ecliptic circle.
Solstice.
Times of the year when the Sun is furthest from the equator at 270 Eo (December 22) or 90 Eo (June 21).
Specie.
Coin rather than paper money.
Sunspots.
Storms on the Sun's surface which appear dark in comparison to the surrounding surface.
Year, Anomalistic is the time taken for the Sun to complete one cycle from perihelion to perihelion (ie the point where the Earth is closest distance to the Sun) and is equal to 365.2596 days.
Year, Lunar  is the year based on 12 synodic months and it is equal to 354.37 days. This is found in astronomy as the interval between the Saros cycle (223 synodic months) and Metonic cycle (235 synodic months).
Year, Nodical
(or more astronomically correct - the Eclipse Year). The time taken for the Sun to complete one cycle north node to north node and equals 346.6201 days.
Year, Tropical.
(or Solar Year) Time taken for the Sun to complete one cycle of the ecliptic circle from spring equinox to spring equinox and is equal to 365.2422 days.
Zenith.
Point in the heavens directly above a particular location on the Earth’s surface.
Zodiac. A band of the sky ranging about 9 degrees either side of the ecliptical circle, in which the Moon and the planets remain. In astrology, this band is divided into 12 zodiac signs from the vernal equinox (Sun at 0 Eo equivalent to 0 Aries), each of 30 degrees ecliptic longitude. This gives the tropical zodiac. In comparison, the sidereal zodiac is related to the 360 degree circle of the fixed stars along the ecliptic.